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Artificial Receptors for Chemical Sensors. Edited by Vladimir M. Mirsky and Anatoly Yatsimirsky.
Cited by. Back to tab navigation Download options Please wait Supplementary information PDF K. Article type: Communication. DOI: Download Citation: Chem. DNA supersandwich assemblies as artificial receptors to mediate intracellular delivery of catalase for efficient ROS scavenging Q. Chen, S. Zhou, C. Li, Q. Guo, X. Yang, J. Huang, J.
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Liu and K. Wang, Chem. Search articles by author Qiaoshu Chen. Shaohong Zhou. The quadrants of the flow cell can be equipped with different molecularly imprinted polymers MIPs, which reduces measurement time. The MIPs were synthesized by a mixture of monomers and crosslinkers such as methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate.
The polymerisation is started by the initiator azobisiso-butyronitrile. The MIP particles were transferred by a polydimethylsiloxane stamp to a poly-phenylene-vinylene adhesion layer. The sensor effect results from temperature changes of the analyte being included by the MIP. This effect is measured by a miniature thermocouple. Thus, L-nicotine detection was possible in the concentration range from 0. MIPs prepared by printing with histamine and serotonin demonstrate selective detection of the analytes of interest.
The described methodology is capable to distinguish between analytes in spite of their chemical similarities. This was possible by optimizing the parameters of the proportional-integral-derivative PID controller feedback loop. Thus, the noise of the equipment was appreciably reduced. Mass-sensitive sensors are universally applicable for monitoring analytes under ambient conditions [ 3 ].
The surface acoustic wave SAW oscillator can be operated at higher frequencies, which results in enhanced sensitivity according to the famous Sauerbrey equation. In this paper a delay line working at MHz was designed. Differential measurements via a mixer between two channels makes it possible to compensate for interfering contributions stemming from temperature fluctuations or other influences. Thus, very thin layers can be applied to the delay area of the SAW, which leads to appreciable responses via adsorption phenomena.
Furthermore, a supramolecular strategy was used by integrating into this monolayer cyclodextrin molecular hollows.
Furthermore, the rise and recovery times were approximately only one minute. The imprinting process leads to favorable cross sensitivities to other organic vapors. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs detection at a very minute level is an analytical challenge concerning environmental chemistry [ 4 ]. These substances can be recognized both by artificial antibodies and biological systems.
This paper uses both strategies to perform the selective analyte detection. Molecularly imprinted polymers are widely used in robust enrichment procedures. After a selective inclusion of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene B[a]P the elution was performed with dichloromethane. The recognition sites were generated by non-covalent imprinting with the template mixture of pyrene and phenanthrene.
Thus, the analyte can be isolated from a complex matrix of vegetable oils. The binding and re-binding of B[a]P can be quantitatively followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Different oil samples with a variable fatty acid contents has proven to be a suitable matrix for calibration. According to paper [ 5 ], the development of a sweetness sensor is a typical task for molecular recognition. The molecules tested are intercalated into the membrane. Thus, aspartame, an important sweetener can be detected by the designed sensor. This idea was already commercialized.
Another analytical challenge is its detection when used as performance-enhancing drug by athletes in sports. The strategy of detection is based on modified electrodes. The selectivity of this electroanalytical method is based on MIPs, which enrich the analyte at the electrode surface. It has to be emphasized that this electrochemical method is a relative inexpensive measuring technique. The electrode shows no reduction of ferricyanide under this condition. The removal of the template leads to an increase in reduction current, which is diminished by the inclusion of the analyte.
The imprinted polymer is highly selective towards targeted analyte in spite of only a minor variation in the template molecule.
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This strategy yields very sensitive sensor responses over a wide concentration range from 1 to nM. The following different topics are discussed in an excellent review article [ 7 ] concerning the development of biomimetic sensors for a large variety of analytes. The biorecognition property of enzymes, antibodies, cells, animal or plant tissues can be imitated by following an innovative technique named as molecular imprinting.
Imprinted materials are robust materials that can be synthesized without time consuming efforts.
The imprinting process can be performed both with organic and inorganic ingredients, but preferably via organic polymers. A template, monomers and crosslinkers are necessary for this process. The polymerization can be started by changing temperature, UV irradiation, or using an initiator. An appropriate solvent can act as porogen, which will favor diffusion processes.
Two types of molecular imprinted can be performed, covalent and non-covalent binding of the template.
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An application of imprinting is the development of imprinted membranes, which are selective barrier between two neighboring phases. Membranes were developed which showed recognition properties towards a great deal of analytes, such as herbicides, drugs, and enantioselective permeation. Biosensors are very important tools for detecting chemical and biological compounds in clinical environmental and food monitoring process.
Biosensors comprise a biological recognition element and a transducer for generating an electrical signal. Biological receptors exhibit high selectivity but lack behind artificial ones due to their poor stability, interferences to ambient environmental influences and difficulties to integrate them in devices. These problems can be reduced by employing imprinted materials, especially by using imprinted polymer particles for enhanced sensitivity. Low-weight organic molecules can be detected by following this strategy to detect contaminants in water and food.
The membrane enriched pesticides, haloacetic acids, antibiotics, persistent contaminants, drugs and bioactive molecules with a variety of transducer methods. Potentiometric and amperometric sensors are most easily realized. This excellent review article [ 8 ] describes various sensor applications of metal oxides in detecting very complex biological analytes.
Metal oxides are mostly used for gas phase monitoring in respect to reducing and oxidizing gases, resulting in conductometric effects.
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- Vladimir M. Mirsky (Author of Artificial Receptors for Chemical Sensors)!
- Molecularly Imprinted Sensors — New Sensing Technologies.
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